The first and only guidance document to help applicants from chemical manufacturers obtain approval to synthesize and manufacture a chemical compound. Written by two EPA scientists, it provides coverage of chemical information needed for risk assessment to satisfy the requirements of the PMN review process and comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act.
As the manufacture of flour confectionery has developed from a craft, reliant on the skills of its workers, to a mechanised industry, it has become necessary to understand the principles underlying the processes involved. This book provides up to date information on the nature of raw materials, the types of equipment available and the changes which occur during processing. An objective approach to the description of products is outlined and recipes are given as possible starting points. Factors affecting the decisions of managers and technologists during development work and methods of controlling processing operations are also discussed. The subject is approached from a problem solving viewpoint, and there is a useful guide to the troubleshooting of many problems commonly encountered in the industry. The book is written for food scientists and technologists in the flour confectionery manufacturing industry. It will also be an essential source of reference for the industry's ingredient suppliers and equipment manufacturers, and for those working or studying in academic and research institutions.
Failure analysis is the preferred method to investigate product or process reliability and to ensure optimum performance of electrical components and systems. The physics-of-failure approach is the only internationally accepted solution for continuously improving the reliability of materials, devices and processes. The models have been developed from the physical and chemical phenomena that are responsible for degradation or failure of electronic components and materials and now replace popular distribution models for failure mechanisms such as Weibull or lognormal. <p> Reliability engineers need practical orientation around the complex procedures involved in failure analysis. This guide acts as a tool for all advanced techniques, their benefits and vital aspects of their use in a reliability programme. Using twelve complex case studies, the authors explain why failure analysis should be used with electronic components, when implementation is appropriate and methods for its successful use. <p> Inside you will find detailed coverage on: <ul> <li>a synergistic approach to failure modes and mechanisms, along with reliability physics and the failure analysis of materials, emphasizing the vital importance of cooperation between a product development team involved <li>the reasons why failure analysis is an important tool for improving yield and reliability by corrective actions <li>the design stage, highlighting the ‘concurrent engineering' approach and DfR (Design for Reliability)  <li>failure analysis during fabrication, covering reliability monitoring, process monitors and package reliability  <li>reliability resting after fabrication, including reliability assessment at this stage and corrective actions  <li>a large variety of methods, such as electrical methods, thermal methods, optical methods, electron microscopy, mechanical methods, X-Ray methods, spectroscopic, acoustical, and laser methods <li>new challenges in reliability testing, such as its use in microsystems and nanostructures </ul> <p> This practical yet comprehensive reference is useful for manufacturers and engineers involved in the design, fabrication and testing of electronic components, devices, ICs and electronic systems, as well as for users of components in complex systems wanting to discover the roots of the reliability flaws for their products.
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